Diabetes types and symptoms
It is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas is unable to produce insulin in sufficient quantity or when the body is unable to effectively use the insulin it produces (insulin: is a hormone produced by an organ located behind the stomach called the pancreas, where insulin adjusts the level of glucose in the blood (glucose: Glucose is an important source of energy for the cells that make up the muscles and tissues. It's also the brain's main source of fuel).
1 - Type 1 diabetes :
It was previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes, as it affects humans due to a lack of insulin production. The factors that cause it are unknown until now, as are the factors that prevent it, and it appears in adolescence and childhood.
2 - Type 2 diabetes :
Previously known as insulin-independent diabetes, this type affects how the body uses sugar (glucose) for energy and prevents the body from using insulin properly, causing blood sugar to rise to high levels if not treated. Over time, it can cause serious harm to the body. Especially for nerves and blood circulation.
Its causes include:
- A - Weight gain
- B- Not exercising adequately
- C- Genetic factors
It is common among people over the age of 40, but it’s now increasingly affecting children as well.
This type is the most common among diabetics, as more than 95% of patients are diagnosed with this type.
3 - Gestational diabetes :
Gestational diabetes is hyperglycemia with blood glucose values above normal but below those diagnostic of diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy.
Women with gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of complications during pregnancy and at delivery. These women and possibly their children are also at increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the future.
4 - Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glycaemia :
This occurs as a result of the body’s imbalance in controlling blood glucose levels during fasting, and this condition is considered one of the risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes.
- 1 - Feeling very thirsty
- 2 - An increased need to urinate than usual
- 3 - Blurred vision
- 4 - Feeling tired and weak
- 5 - Weight loss
- 6 - The presence of ketones in the urine (ketones: is one of the byproducts of the breakdown of muscle and fat that occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body)
- 7 - Easily irritable or other mood swings
- 8 - Slow wound healing
- 9 - Suffering from many infections, such as gum and skin infections
- • In general, the symptoms of diabetes depend on the extent of the high blood sugar level, and some people may not show symptoms, especially if they have prediabetes, gestational diabetes, or type 2 diabetes, but in the case of type 1 diabetes, the symptoms usually appear quickly and are more severe.
- 1- Over time, diabetes can cause damage to the blood vessels in the heart, eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
- 2- People with diabetes are more susceptible to health problems, including heart attacks, stroke, and kidney failure.
- 3- It can cause permanent vision loss as a result of damage to the blood vessels in the eyes.
- 4- Many diabetics suffer from problems in their feet due to nerve damage and poor blood flow, which may cause foot ulcers and lead to amputation.
- 1- People with type 1 diabetes need insulin injections.
- 2- Some people with type 2 diabetes will need to take medicines to help manage their blood sugar levels, These can include insulin injections or other medicines. Some examples include :
- A - metformin
- B - sulfonylureas
- C - sodium-glucose co-transporters inhibitors.
- • In some cases, there is a need for more medical care to treat the effects of diabetes, such as :
- A - Foot care to treat ulcers
- B - Examination to detect and treat kidney disease
- C - Examination to detect diabetic retinopathy
- • Changing lifestyles is a way to prevent type 2 diabetes or delay its onset through the following :
- 1- reach and keep a health body weight .
- 2- stay physically active with at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise each day .
- 3- eat a healthy diet and avoid sugar and saturated fat .
- 4- Don't smoke tobacco .
- • At the end, diabetics must maintain the correct blood sugar level by taking necessary medications and performing periodic examinations so that the disease does not worsen into other diseases that harm their health.
• The Essential Diabetes Book